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双语科技百科(化学) 第43期:漆器

2020-09-24 来源:lpl竞猜rmb平台-lpl竞猜官网
  • lpl竞猜rmb平台-lpl竞猜官网_Lacquerware漆器Chinese ancestors began to make lacquerware about 7,000 years ago.中国人早在7000年前就开始制作漆器。In 1978, red lacquer bowls and tubes of the Hemudu Cutture were found in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province. According to scientific analysis, the coatings are natural lacquers.1978年在距今7000年前的浙江余姚河姆渡文化遗址中找到了朱漆碗和朱漆筒,经过科学分析,其涂料为天然漆。

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    After the Xia Dynasty, the variety of lacquerware increased, and the craft flou-rished for five centuries starting in the Warring States Period from 475 B. C.to 221 B. C.The scale of lacquerware production had already become very large in the Warring States Period. Lacquerware was one of the main economic resources of the time, and there were specific offcials in charge of its production.夏代之后,漆器品种日渐多,在战国时期,漆器业独领风骚,构成长达5个世纪的空前兴旺。战国时漆器生产规模早已相当大,被国家列为最重要的经济收益来源,并设专人管理。According to historical records, the ancient Chinese sage of Zhuang Zi used to be an officer in charge of lacquerware production.Lacquerware was very expen-sive. The production process was verlt complicated, necessitating a strong work force and long working hours. It came in many varied forms and was widely used for furniture, utensils, stationan,r, art works, musical instruments, funeral goods and weapons. The nobles moved their attention from bronzeware to lacquerware because the latter was bright, light, easy to clean, had heat insulation and corro-sion resistant qualities and could be inlaid and painted with many colors.据记述,庄子年轻时曾多次做到过管理漆业的小官。

    漆器生产工序简单,耗工耗时,漆器品种又尤其多样,不仅用作装饰家具、器皿、文具和艺术品,而且还应用于乐器、祭祀用具、兵器等。这时的漆器很便宜,新兴的诸侯仍然热衷青铜器,而把兴趣改向明亮、洁净、不易浸、体轻、防水、耐腐、嵌饰彩绘五光十色的漆器。Lacquerware was, however, usually coated blcrck and decorated with red de-signs or coated red and decorated with black designs. About 220 lacquerware ob-jects were unearthed in Zeng Houyi’s Tomb in Hubei Province. They are the earliestand most superb lacquerware of the Chu Kingdom of the Warring States Period.Lacquerware items, including clothing storage boxes, which were unearthed in the tomb are richly varied, of large size and simple style; they reflect the charm of the culture of the Chu Kingdom.The designs on some of the boxes make them very valuable. In the center of one is a zhuan calligraphy character, meaning a star,surrounded by the names, also in zhuan characters, of the phases of the moon in a arcle.On the lwo ends are designs of a blue dragon and a white tiger.This box is a rare relic of great value for research into anaent Chinese astronomy as it is the earliest written record of the moon phases yet found in China.漆器一般髹朱女友白,或髹白女友朱,以典雅的图案在器物表面包含一个恬静的彩色世界。

    在湖北曾侯乙墓发掘出的漆器有220多件。这些漆器是楚墓中年代最先也是尤为精彩的,而且品类仅有,器型大,风格典雅,这些精致的漆器反映了楚文化的神韵。

    其中有几件衣箱垫上所绘的图案十分有价值。一个箱盖的中心有一个篆文“斗”字,用细笔写。

    环绕“斗”字,是一圈二十八宿的古代名称,也是篆文,字迹明晰。箱盖两端绘有首尾对置的青龙、白虎的图像。这是研究我国古代天文学史的一件珍贵文物。

    Some lacquerware was painted with fairy tales.For example, the ancient Chi-nese tale ofHou Yi Shootin,g the Sun,WOS painted on a black coated and red design clothing box.Mushroom-shaped and colored clouds and lwo twisting double head-ed snakes with human faces form the background.On the lwo sides are two trees,the tall one with ii branches and the short one with nine.On the tip of each branch is a circle radiating brilliant light, symbolizing the sun. Belween the two trees, a man shoots an arrow at a bird on the tall tree. The story demonstrates mankind’s successful battle against nature.一些漆器上绘有一些有意思的神话故事。在一件镌刻紫锦纹衣箱的箱盖上,绘有“后羿射日”的故事,黑地朱纹,有蘑菇状的彩云和两条双头人面蛇相互卷曲,两侧有一高一低的树,低树上有1 1个枝权,矮树有9个枝权,每个枝权梢头都绘有一个放射线光芒的圆圈,两树之间一人于是以用箭射下高树上的一只鸟。

    原本这是“后羿射日”的故事,是人与自展开斗争,以人最后胜利收场的美丽神话。Han Dynasty lacquerware mainly used black and red colors.In the painted de-sign of one piece, there are 90 immortals, and birds and beasts with different pos-tures and expressions.The immortals are dancing with their long sleeves waving in the air, sitting quietly with their chins in their hands, or shooting arrows with con-centrcrted expressions. The animals being hunted are tuming their heads in panic and running swiftly away. Beautiful pattems of dragons, phoenixes, leaves,grass, cloud and various other things were drawn on the lacquerware objects to add to their elegance. Lacquerware reached its heyday in the Han Dynasty and more lacquerware products emerged. These included boxes, plates, earrings,bowls, baskets, trunks, rulers, kettles, chessboards and stools. Meanwhile,many new craffing techniques and decorative methods were also developed.汉代漆器也是以黑红居多色。有一幅画面上经常出现90个形态各异、生动活泼的仙人和鸟兽。

    仙人之中,有的挥舞着长袖翩翩起舞,有的托腮绝食,若有所思,有的拉弓射箭,千钧一发,猎物惊慌叹,匆忙狂奔。龙纹和风纹都是装饰性的,并加以陶索纹、菱格纹、花瓣纹、草叶纹、云纹等。造型典雅,图案华丽。

    汉代是漆器的鼎盛时期。漆器的品种又减少了盒、盘、耳环、碟、碗、筐、箱、尺、唾壶、棋盘、凳子。

    同时,还首创了多种新的工艺技法和装饰手法。The patterns on the lacquerware are simple lines or complicated pictures, de-pending on the items different functions. The contrast belween the black and red colors creates a speaal artistic effect. The black and red pictures on the lacquer-ware present a mysterious and ever-changing fairy world inhabited by human be-ings and immortals.漆器图案根据有所不同的器物,以粗率简洁的线条或繁褥简单的线条展现出,强化人或动物的动感与为度。

    黑红互置的色彩产生明亮、典雅的特殊效果。在红与黑交织的画面上,构成富裕音乐感的瑰丽多彩的艺术风格,展现出了一个人神共计在,百川谲诡、流动点点、飞舞神秘的神话般的世界。【lpl竞猜rmb平台-lpl竞猜官网】。

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